By Giuseppe Pezzotti
Based on an interdisciplinary process that without delay bridges orthopedic thoughts to floor technology, this ebook information state of the art examine in bioceramics technology, actual chemistry, biomedical optics, and nanomechanics. The ebook cites the various extra traditional spectroscopic characterization techniques—including Raman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. those ideas were used to unveil molecular scale phenomena of either chemical and mechanical beginning happening on the sliding surfaces of bioceramic joints. those strategies are of serious significance to researchers as they're proper to the advance of latest biomaterials.
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Extra info for Advanced materials for joint implants
Heros and Willmann  published a milestone report on alumina fracture incidence in 1998. 8%, namely a maximum of 8 fractured femoral head per 1000 cases. Statistical data for the early 1990s showed already a fracture incidence reduced to 2 balls per 10000 cases. 14%, respectively (on a number of revision surgeries n = 8554) (cf. Fig. 4 ). Among the cases of acetabular fracture, surgeons in Europe, Asia, and the United States, have concurrently reported rim chipping and fracture of ceramic inserts [7, 8, 60–62].
In addition to imaging the surface morphology of biomaterials, the SEM can be combined with other analytical methods such as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) to determine the elemental distribution on the biomaterial surface [137, 138], electron backscattering diﬀraction (EBSD) for highly localized crystallographic assessments [139–141], and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy for monitoring surface modifications in terms of stoichiometry, lattice defects and elastic strain [71, 121, 142–144].
A patella, or kneecap, sits in the anterior side of the knee. The knee joint is stabilized by a complex arrangement of ligaments, tendons, and muscles, which provide anterolateral and posterolateral stabilization. 3 Schematic draft of an artificial knee joint with its composite structure and the definition of its components. The underside of patella is covered by articular cartilage, which is made of hyaline cartilage to provide a smooth surface and absorb shock. This smooth surface at the back of the patella allows the patella to glide smoothly within the groove on the anterior portion of the femur during flexion and extension of the leg.