By Takatoh Kohki
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Additional info for Alignment Technology and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices
How large is the effect of anchoring strength on the LC panel characteristics? 38 shows the relation between the anchoring energy and the actual twist angle when the LC of the cell is configured to a 90 twist. The azimuthal anchoring energy of the rubbing has a range from 1 Â10À4 J mÀ2 to 5 Â 10À4 J mÀ2. By transferring the anchoring energy to the twist angle, the relationship between the applied voltage and the transmittance is obtained and shown in Fig. 39. The transmittance change in the grey level caused by changing the twist angle is less than 2%, which is acceptable.
By using this equation, we can calculate the relationship between the groove frequency and the anchoring energy, which is shown in Fig. 24. 100 10–1 10–2 10–3 1 × 10–4 1 × 10–5 10–6 10–7 1E-9 1E-8 1E-7 Groove cycle [m] Fig. 24 Azimuthal anchoring energy as a function of the groove frequency. Calculated based on the elastic energy. Rubbing Technologies: Mechanisms and Applications 31 Here we assume the depth of the groove is 1 nm. The actual azimuthal anchoring energy of the rubbed polyimide is about 10À3 JmÀ2.
However, the surfaces of the spacer beads tend to align the LC molecules perpendicular to the bead surfaces. When the electric field is applied to the LC cell, it aligns the LC molecules including those at the surfaces of the beads parallel to it. By the effect of the pretilt angle of the LC molecules on the glass substrates, the disclination lines then extend asymmetrically to the rubbing direction. The alignment orientation and its strength depends on the material of the spacer beads. Their movement also makes scratches on the alignment layer.